Direct and Indirect Speech adalah kalimat langsung dan tidak langsung dalam bahasa Inggris. Kedua jenis kalimat ini digunakan jika kita ingin menyampaikan kembali atau mengambil kutipan dari kalimat yang diucapkan oleh orang lain.

Direct Speech atau kalimat langsung adalah kalimat kutipan yang disampaikan sama persis seperti apa yang diucapkan oleh pembicara asalnya. Atau kita sering mendengarnya sebagai kutipan langsung.

Sedangkan Indirect Speech atau kalimat tidak langsung adalah kalimat kutipan yang disampaikan menggunakan bahasa kita sendiri.

Contoh:

Direct Speech:He said, “I am happy”.
Indirect Speech:He said that he was happy then.

Apakah anda sudah memahami perbedaan antara Many, Much, dan A Lot? Andan bisa mempelajarinya di artikel tentang Penggunaan Many, Much, and A Lot.

Cara Membuat Direct and Indirect Speech

Kalimat langsung diberi tanda baca (punctuation). Koma (,) di depan say, ask, dll, dan Quotation Marks atau tanda petik (“. . .”). Perhatikan perubahan dalam kalimat berikut.

Direct Speech:Hesaid,“Iamhappy”.
1
Indirect Speech:Hesaidthathewashappythen.
234

Perubahan dalam Direct and Indirect Speech

Jika kita ingin mengubah direct speech menjadi indirect speech atau sebaliknya, terdapat dua aturan tata bahasa yang perlu dirubah.

Perubahan Tenses (bentuk waktu)

DirectIndirect
Simple present
Present continuous tense
Present perfect
Present perfect continuous

Simple past
Past continuous
Past perfect
Past perfect continuous

Future 1 – 4
Past future 1 – 4
Simple past
Past continuous
Past perfect
Past perfect continous

Past perfect
Past perfect continuous
Tetap
Tetap

Past future (1 – 4)
Tetap
Modals
Can
Could
Will/shall
Must
May
Would/should
Ought/should
Could
tetap
Would/should
Had to
Might
Tetap
Tetap

Contoh:
They asked him, “How many pens did you buy?”.
They asked him how many pens he had bought.
She asked us, “What will you buy?”.
She asked us what we would buy.

Perubahan Waktu dan Keterangan Tempat

DirectIndirect
now
this morning
this …
today
tomorrow
next month
next …
yesterday
last week
last …
this
these
then
that morning
that …
that day
the next day /the following day
the month after/ the following month
the… after /the following…
the day before/ the previous day
the week before/ the previous week
the… before/ the previous….
that
those

    Catatan:

  • Keterangan waktu atau tempat tidak berubah dalam kalimat tak langsung apabila waktu dan tempatnya ‘sama‘.
  • Tenses tidak berubah apabila ‘kata kerja‘ yang melaporkan dalam bentuk: Present dan Future.
Contoh:
Direct
Indirect
Direct
Indirect
: She told, “I want to go now“.
: She told that she want to go then.
: He said to me, “I have given you”.
: He said to me that he had given me.

Penggunaan Direct and Indirect Speech

    Direct and Indirect speech terdiri dari tiga jenis

  • Statement (pernyataan)
  • Command (perintah)
  • Question (pertanyaan)

Statement (Pernyataan)

Dalam Indirect Statement, kita gunakan kata that (=bahwa) sebagai penghubung antara kalimat pengantar (introductory phrase) dan kata-kata yang dilaporkan (reported word).
Kalimat-kalimat pengantar dalam indirect statement adalah:

He said
He said to me
He told me

+ that + Reported Words

Contoh:
Marry told Jonny, “My father warned me last night.”
Marry told Jonny that her father had warned her the night before.
My brother said to me, “I don’t like tennis.”
My brother said to me that he didn’t like tennis.
Riana told her friends, “I have been to Alif twice.”
Riana told her friends that she had been to Alif twice.
Father said, “I am going out of town tomorrow.”
Father Said that he was going out of town the following day.
Anthony said, “I didn’t go to school this morning.”
Anthony said that he hadn’t gone to school that morning.

Keterangan:
Apabila kalimat pengantarnya dalam bentuk Simple Present Tense, kalimat yang dilaporkan tidak mengalami perubahan.

Contoh :
All says, “I will go to Banten tomorrow.”
All says that he will go to Banten tomorrow.
My brother says, “I met Anthony at the party last night.”
My brother says that he met Anthony at the party last night.
Anthony says, “I don’t like Arabic.”
Anthony says that he doesn’t like Arabic.
Riana says, “I have seen that film.”
Riana says that she has seen that film.

Command (Perintah)

    Command dibagi dalam 2 (dua) bagian yaitu,

  • Positive Command
  • Negative Command

Positive Command

Dalam perintah positif, kita tambahkan to di depan kalimat perintahnya, sebagai penghubung antara kalimat pengantar dan perintah yang dilaporkan. Kalimat-kalimat pengantar dalam jenis ini adalah:

He asked me

He told me

+ to + Infinitive

Contoh:
Father asked Alif, “Pay attention to what I say!”
Father asked Alif to pay attention to what she says.
He asked me, “Open your book!”
He asked me to open my book.
Riana told me, “Stop talking to Andi!”
Riana told me to stop talking to Andi.
Alif told Riana, “Wait until I come!”
Alif told Riana to wait until he comes.
The teacher said to the student, “Be quite while I am talking!”
The teacher said to the student to be quite while he (she) talking.

Negative Command

Dalam perintah negatif ditambahkan not to di depan perintah yang dilaporkan.

He asked me

He told me

+ not to + Infinitive

Contoh:
Father asked him, “Don’t go there alone.”
Father asked him not to go there alone.
I told her, “Don’t mention it to anyone!”
I told her not to mention it to anyone.
Riana asked Alif, “Don’t come to my house again.”
Riana asked Alif not to come to her house again.
Mary told Jonny, “Don’t wait for me!”
Mary told Jonny not to wait for her.
Uncle asked Dani, “Don’t smoke too much.”
Uncle asked Dani not to smoke too much.

Question (Pertanyaan)

Jika pertanyaannya langsung (direct question) dengan menggunakan kata tanya seperti: Where, When, Why, What, Who, How, dll., maka kata-kata tersebut digunakan sebagai penghubung dalam Reported Speech.
Pertanyaan yang dilaporkan berubah menjadi bentuk positif.

He asked mewhere
when
etc.
+ Positive Form

Contoh:
I asked him, “When did you get back from your trip?”
I asked him when he had got back from his trip.
Jonny asked the girl, “What is your name?”
Jonny asked the girl what her name was.
The man asked me, “Where did you life?”
The man asked me where I life.
Jonny asked Marry, “Why do you get angry with me?”
Jonny asked Marry why she got angry with him.
She asked me, “How will you go there?”
She asked me how I would go there.

Catatan:
Bila pertanyaan langsung tidak menggunakan kata-kata tanya, dan hanya merupakan pertanyaan dalam bentuk “Yes & No Question“, kita menggunakan kata-kata if atau whether (= jika, apakah) sebagai penghubung antara kalimat pengantar dan pertanyaan yang dilaporkan.

Contoh:
She asked him, “Do you wait me?”
She asked him if/whether he waited her.
The man asked Alif, “Does Riana live near there?”
The man asked Alif if Riana lived near there.
Riana asked me, “Did you see Alif at the party last night?”
Riana asked me whether I had seen Alif at the party the night before.
The teacher asked Riana, “Have you finish your homework?”
The teacher asked Riana if she had finished her homework.
We asked them, “Will you go to the movie with us tonight?”
We asked them whether they would go to the movie with us that night.
Father asked Alif, “Are you going to marry her?”
Father asked Alif if he was going to marry her.
He asked, “Are they busy?”
He asked if/whether they were busy.

    Keterangan:

  • Baik if atau whether dapat digunakan bergantian.
  • Kata sambung yang digunakan dalam kalimat tak langsung (affirmative/negative) menggunakan that.
  • Interrogative: if, whether atau dengan kata tanya: what, who, where, dll.
  • Imperative: to, not to.

Apakah anda tahu perbedaan penggunaan kata Some dan Any? Anda bisa mempelajarinya pada artikel tentang Perbedaan Penggunaan Some dan Any

Direct and Indirect Speech dengan Auxiliaries

DirectIndirect
was/were
can
may
must & have to
must not
needn’t
had been
could
might
had to
wasn’t to/ mustn’t
didn’t have to

Contoh:
The teacher told them, “You needn’t hurry.”
The teacher told them that they didn’t have to hurry.
The man asked me, “Can you speak English?”
The man asked me if I could speak English.
Father told Jonny, “You must study harder if you want to pass the examp.”
Father told Jonny that he had to study harder if he wanted to pass the examp.
Marry said to Jonny, “You may come to my house tomorrow.”
Marry said to Jonny that he might come to her house the following day.
The police told me, “You must not drive without license.”
The police told me that I wasn’t to drive without license.
Riana said, “I was sick yesterday.”
Riana said that she had been sick the day before.

Nah, itu tadi adalah beberapa aturan yang perlu kita pelajari jika ingin mengubah pernyataan dari kalimat langsung (direct speech) menjadi kalimat tidak langsung (indirect speech) atau sebaliknya.

Setelah mempelajari tentang artikel Direct and Indirect Speech, anda bisa mempelajari tahap selanjutnya tentang Relative Clause.

Jika ada yang ingin bertanya atau memberikan masukan, silahkan berkomentar dengan bijak pada kolom yang disediakan. Terima kasih…